The circle closes

The fire, flood and apocalypse of the last scene of Götterdämmerung are a major challenge to stage. Here’s the 1992 Bayreuth solution to the multiple problems of the horse, Grane; the funeral pyre; inundation; and the destruction of Valhalla:

(The Harry Kupfer and Daniel Barenboim Ring. Bayreuth 1992. Götterdämmerung Act 3 Scene 3 Immolation Scene
Anne Evans: Brunnhilde soprano, Philip Kang: Hagen bass)

…but, whatever the staging, there’s always redemption and love.

Redemption

Immolation

General course materials:

Keyboard

Cycle of 5ths

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